A good summary by Peter Henning, here — DOJ Financial Crisis Cases? — about possible future cases arising from the financial crisis and the Government’s use of a FIRREA provision. In part:
But pursuing criminal cases from the financial crisis gets increasingly difficult, especially against individuals, because unlike a good bottle of wine, evidence does not age well. Memories dim and the chance of finding the “smoking gun” e-mail or recording that can help implicate a defendant in a fraudulent scheme becomes less likely with the passage of time.
Mr. Holder will more likely pursue charges under a civil statute that has become the Justice Department’s favorite tool of late against banks: 12 U.S.C. 1833a. The statute provides for civil penalties for violations “affecting a financial institution” of up to $5.5 million or the amount the defendant gained from the misconduct.
Congress enacted this provision in 1989 during the savings and loan crisis as part of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act to give prosecutors another tool to pursue cases involving fraud and other misconduct at banks.
The law is a hybrid: it requires prosecutors to establish that criminal conduct occurred while using the lower civil burden of proof to establish the violation. That makes it easier for the Justice Department to make its case and can even allow a court to make a favorable ruling based solely on written evidence without a trial.
Section 1833a contains other favorable measures for the government. The law extended the statute of limitations for a host of banking crimes to 10 years from the usual 5-year period, so the Justice Department faces little time pressure in pursuing cases involving the mortgage market during the lead up to the financial crisis.
The statute only requires that the violation affect a financial institution, a term that has been broadly construed in recent district court decisions. Last week, Judge Jed S. Rakoff of Federal District Court in Manhattan rejected a challenge by Bank of America to a lawsuit involving the sale of faulty mortgages by its Countrywide Financial subsidiary. He found that the financial institution affected by the fraud could be Bank of America itself, so that even a self-inflicted wound could be the basis for pursuing a civil penalty action.